the sketching time fun

iris, maggie, morgan, and verite,
they roll pieces of paper,
sketching oval face from Connecticut,
believing that mary skoog is classy,
and abbey wood is pretty,
bradford farm courtyard,
kim, baylee, and laynie sit,
weaving dreams of penelope,
their figures wear long nails,
their hair curl in waves,
and September heat gives in
a fresh picture of saint mary settles

some say samba is prideful,
some say matilda is quite beautiful,
I say matthew is brave,
and Lawrence is the diving dolphin
at arctic rainbow tape

0054 bill haslam for tian na xi


2013 Northwestern Graduation Ceremonies
2013 Northwestern Graduation Ceremonies

peony, a flower for October birthday people

Image result for peony

Image result for peony

Jiang Dawei (蒋大为) (born 1947 in Tianjin) is a Chinese folk singer

牡丹之歌 (Mu Dan Zhi Ge) or song of peony

啊 牡丹
啊 牡丹
啊 牡丹
啊 牡丹 啊 牡丹


Brad Pitt pals, or David Robert Joseph Beckham, and Victoria Beckham


beckham family 2015

xiao ben and la mei and xiao qi

Club career

Manchester United

Youth and early career

Having signed for Manchester United as a trainee on 8 July 1991,[29] Beckham was part of a group of young players, including Ryan Giggs, Gary Neville and Paul Scholes, who were coached by Eric Harrison and guided the club to win the FA Youth Cup in May 1992. Beckham scored Manchester United’s second goal in the 30th minute of their 3–1 first-leg win of the final against Crystal Palace on 14 April 1992. In the second leg on 15 May, Beckham played a full 90-minutes of the fixture which ended 3–2 in favour of Manchester United and 6–3 on aggregate. Beckham’s impact led to a first-team debut on 23 September 1992, as a substitute for Andrei Kanchelskis in a League Cup match against Brighton & Hove Albion. Shortly afterwards, Beckham signed as a professional on 23 January 1993.[30]

Manchester United would again reach the final of the FA Youth Cup, where they would face Leeds United. The first leg was played on 10 May 1993, where Beckham featured in Manchester United’s 2–0 home loss and was substituted off of the field for Robbie Savage. In the second leg on 13 May 1993, Beckham played the entire fixture of Manchester United’s 2–1 defeat, which gave Leeds United a 4–1 aggregate score. Beckham would also receive honors with the club’s reserve-team, when the squad would win the league in 1994. In September 1994, Beckham went on to gain his first full appearance in the club’s first team against Port Vale in a League Cup fixture. On 7 December 1994, Beckham made his UEFA Champions League debut, scoring a goal in a 4–0 victory at home to Galatasaray in the final game of the group stage. However, despite the victory they finished third out of four in their group behind FC Barcelona.[31]

Preston North End (loan)

He then went to Preston North End on loan for part of the 1994–95 season to get some first team experience. He impressed, scoring two goals in five appearances, notably scoring directly from a corner kick.[32]

Return to Manchester United

Beckham returned to Manchester and finally made his Premier League debut for Manchester United on 2 April 1995, in a goal-less draw against Leeds United. He played four times for United in the league that season, as they finished second behind Blackburn Rovers and missed a third successive Premier League title by a single point. He was not in the squad for the FA Cup final with Everton on 20 May, which they lost 1–0 and were left without a major trophy for the first time since 1989.[33]

United manager Sir Alex Ferguson had a great deal of confidence in the club’s young players. Beckham was part of a group of young talents Ferguson brought into United in the 1990s (known as “Fergie’s Fledglings“), which included Nicky Butt and Gary and Phil Neville. When experienced players Paul Ince, Mark Hughes, and Andrei Kanchelskis left the club after the end of the 1994–95 season, his decision to let youth team players replace them instead of buying star players from other clubs (United had been linked with moves for players including Darren Anderton, Marc Overmars, and Roberto Baggio, but no major signings were made that summer), drew a great deal of criticism. The criticism increased when United started the season with a 3–1 defeat at Aston Villa,[34] with Beckham scoring United’s only goal of the game; however, United would recover from this early season defeat and the young players performed well.[35]

Beckham swiftly established himself as United’s right-sided midfielder (rather than a right-winger in the style of his predecessor Andrei Kanchelskis) and helped them to win the Premier League title and FA Cup double that season, scoring the winner in the semi-final against Chelsea and also provided the corner that Eric Cantona scored from in the FA Cup Final. Beckham’s first title medal had, for a while, looked like it would not be coming that season, as United were still 10 points adrift of leaders Newcastle United at the turn of the new year, but Beckham and his team-mates had overhauled the Tynesiders at the top of the league by mid March and they remained top until the end of the season. Despite playing regularly (and to a consistently high standard) for Manchester United, Beckham did not break into the England squad before Euro 96.[36]

“It changed my life. The ball seemed to be in the air for hours and it all went quiet. Then the ball went in and it just erupted. I was on cloud nine. I just wanted to shake everybody’s hand and be out on the pitch for an hour.”

—Beckham on the goal from the half-way line against Wimbledon in August 1996 that made him a household name.[37]

At the beginning of the 1996–97 season David Beckham was given the number 10 shirt that had most recently been worn by Mark Hughes. On 17 August 1996 (the first day of the Premier League season), Beckham became something of a household name when he scored a spectacular goal in a match against Wimbledon. With United leading 2–0, Beckham noticed that Wimbledon’s goalkeeper Neil Sullivan was standing a long way out of his goal, and hit a shot from the halfway line that floated over the goalkeeper and into the net.[38]

When Beckham scored his famous goal, he did so in Adidas Predator shoes custom-made for Charlie Miller (“Charlie” embroidered on boots), which had been given to Beckham by mistake.[39] In a UK poll conducted by Channel 4 in 2002, the British public voted the goal No.18 in the list of the 100 Greatest Sporting Moments.[40] During the 1996–97 season, Beckham became an automatic first-choice player at Manchester United helping them to retain the Premier League championship, and was voted PFA Young Player of the Year by his peers.[41]

On 18 May 1997, Eric Cantona retired as a player and left the coveted number 7 shirt free, and with Teddy Sheringham arriving from Tottenham Hotspur as Cantona’s successor, Beckham left his number 10 shirt for Sheringham and picked up the iconic number 7 shirt, famously worn by club legends George Best, Bryan Robson, and Eric Cantona, and subsequently by Cristiano Ronaldo.[42] Manchester United started the 1997–98 season well but erratic performances in the second half of the season saw United finish second behind Arsenal.[43]

Beckham preparing to take a corner kick for Manchester United during the 1999 FA Cup Final at Wembley Stadium

In the 1998–99 season, he was part of the United team that won The Treble of the Premier League, FA Cup and Champions League, a unique feat in English football.[44] There had been speculation that the criticism that he had received after being sent off in the World Cup would lead to him leaving England, but Beckham decided to stay at Manchester United.[45]

To ensure they would win the Premier League title, United needed to win their final league match of the season, at home to Tottenham Hotspur (with reports suggesting that the opposition would allow themselves to be easily beaten to prevent their deadly local rivals Arsenal from retaining the title), but Tottenham took an early lead in the match.[44] Beckham scored the equaliser with a curling strike from 25 yards out into the top left corner of the goal and United went on to win the match and the league.[44]

Beckham played in central midfield in United’s win over Bayern Munich in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final, since United’s first string centre-midfielders Paul Scholes and Roy Keane were suspended for the match.[44] United were losing the match 1–0 at the end of normal time, but won the trophy by scoring two goals in injury time. Both of the goals came from corners taken by Beckham.[44] Those crucial assists, coupled with great performances over the rest of the season, led to him finishing runner up to Rivaldo for 1999’s European Footballer of the Year and FIFA World Player of the Year awards.[46]

Despite Beckham’s achievements in the 1998–99 season, he was still unpopular among some opposition fans and journalists, and he was criticised after being sent off for a deliberate foul in Manchester United’s World Club Championship match against Necaxa. It was suggested in the press that his wife was a bad influence on him, and that it might be in United’s interests to sell him,[47] but his manager publicly backed him and he stayed at the club. During the 1999–2000 season, there was a talk of a transfer to Juventus in Italy, but this never happened. Beckham helped United retain the Premier League title in 1999–2000 by an 18-point margin – after being pushed by Arsenal and Leeds United for much of the season. United won their final 11 league games of the season, with Beckham scoring five goals during this run, with his last goal coming from a swerving shot from the edge of the penalty area in their final home game against Tottenham Hotspur.[48]

By the early 2000s, the relationship between Ferguson and Beckham had begun to deteriorate, possibly as a result of Beckham’s fame and commitments away from football. In 2000, Beckham was given permission to miss training to look after his son Brooklyn, who had gastroenteritis, but Ferguson was furious when Victoria Beckham was photographed at a London Fashion Week event on the same night, claiming that Beckham would have been able to train if Victoria had looked after Brooklyn that day. He responded by fining Beckham the maximum amount that was permitted (two weeks’ wages – then £50,000) and dropping him for a crucial match against United’s rivals Leeds United. He later criticised Beckham for this in his autobiography, claiming he had not been “fair to his teammates”[49] Beckham had a good season for his club, though, and helped United to win the Premier League by a record margin.

“He was never a problem until he got married. He used to go into work with the academy coaches at night time, he was a fantastic young lad. Getting married into that entertainment scene was a difficult thing – from that moment, his life was never going to be the same. He is such a big celebrity, football is only a small part.”‘ – Alex Ferguson speaking about Beckham’s marriage in 2007.[50]

He was a key player in United’s third successive league title in 2000–01 – only the fourth time that any club had achieved three league titles in a row. He scored nine goals that season, all in the Premier League.

On 10 April 2002, Beckham was injured during a Champions League match against Deportivo La Coruña, breaking the second metatarsal bone in his left foot. There was speculation in the British media that the injury might have been caused deliberately, as the player who had injured Beckham was Argentine Aldo Duscher, and England and Argentina were due to meet in that year’s World Cup.[51] The injury prevented Beckham from playing for United for the rest of the season and they missed out on the Premier League title to Arsenal (also being knocked out of the Champions League by Bayer Leverkusen on away goals in the semi-finals), but he signed a three-year contract in May, following months of negotiations with the club, mostly concerning extra payments for his image rights. The income from his new contract, and his many endorsement deals, made him the highest-paid player in the world at the time.[52] Despite the injury, 2001–02 was arguably Beckham’s best season as a United player; he scored 11 goals in 28 league games, and a total of 16 goals in 42 games in all competitions, the best of his career.

Following an injury early in the 2002–03 season, Beckham was unable to regain his place on the Manchester United team, with Ole Gunnar Solskjær having replaced him on the right side of midfield. His relationship with his manager deteriorated further on 15 February 2003 when, in the changing room following an FA Cup defeat to Arsenal, a furious Alex Ferguson threw[53][54][55][56][57] [58] or kicked a boot that struck Beckham over the eye, causing a cut that required stitches. The incident led to a great deal of transfer speculation involving Beckham, with bookmakers offering odds on whether he or Ferguson would be first to leave the club.[59] Although the team had started the season badly, their results improved greatly from December onwards and they won the league, with Beckham managing a total of 11 goals in 52 games in all competitions. He was still a first-choice player for England, however, and was appointed an Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (OBE) for services to football on 13 June 2003.[60]

Beckham had made 265 Premier league appearances for United and scored 61 goals. He also made 81 Champions league appearances, scoring 15 goals. Beckham won six Premier League titles, two FA Cups, one European Cup, one Intercontinental Cup, and one FA Youth Cup in the space of 12 years. By this stage, he was their joint second longest serving player behind Ryan Giggs (having joined them at the same time as Nicky Butt, Gary Neville and Paul Scholes).

the chessboard game

my mind is philed with chessboard of lovers,
pawn to pawn, each makes its moves
targeted. watchful eyes stare, they
place order on the stressed fingers,
forgetting how their forceful move
push some pieces out of the picture,
although defeated, the game
continues, and the battle lasts
on all fields of kings and queens,
a fat pig won’t give in
with a fair ant marching its band

Harbin city, capital of Heilongjiang Sheng

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Harbin (disambiguation).
Sub-provincial city
Clockwise from top: Downtown Harbin, Yangmingtan Bridge, Dragon Tower, Harbin Ice and Snow World, Flood control monument, Saint Sofia Cathedral, Harbin Music Park

Clockwise from top: Downtown Harbin, Yangmingtan Bridge, Dragon Tower, Harbin Ice and Snow World, Flood control monument, Saint Sofia Cathedral, Harbin Music Park
Flag of Harbin
Official seal of Harbin
Nickname(s): Ice City, Oriental Paris, Oriental Moscow, The pearl on the swan’s neck
Harbin (red) in Heilongjiang (orange)
Harbin (red) in Heilongjiang (orange)
Harbin is located in Heilongjiang


Location of the city center in Heilongjiang

Coordinates: 45°45′N 126°38′ECoordinates: 45°45′N 126°38′E
Country People’s Republic of China
Province Heilongjiang
County-level divisions 18 divisions,[1] including 9 urban districts, 2 County-level cities and 7 counties
Settled before 1115
– Town
 – County 1905-10-31
 – Municipality 1921-02-05
 • Secretary Municipal Committee of the CPC Chen Haibo (陈海波, since December, 2014)
 • Mayor Song Xibin (宋希斌, since January, 2012)
 • Sub-provincial city 53,068 km2 (20,490 sq mi)
 • Urban 4,640.4 km2 (1,791.7 sq mi)
 • Metro 10,204.8 km2 (3,940.1 sq mi)
Elevation 150 m (488 ft)
Population (2010)[4]
 • Sub-provincial city 10,635,971
 • Density 200/km2 (520/sq mi)
 • Urban 5,282,083
 • Urban density 1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
 • Metro 6,704,573
 • Metro density 660/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
Data comes from 2010 National Census (urban population data excludes de facto satellite cities Acheng and Shuangcheng)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 150000
Area code(s) 451
License plate prefixes A,L
GDP (2013) CNY 501.08 billion
 – Growth Increase 8.9%
 – per capita CNY 49,565
GDP (PPP) 2013
 – Total US$117.99 billion
 – Per capita US$ 11,671
City flowers Lilac
Website Harbin Official Website
Harbin name (SVG version).svg

“Harbin” in Simplified Chinese
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaning (Manchu) “Place of drying fishnets”
Manchu name
Manchu script Harbin-manchu.png
Romanization Harbin
Russian name
Russian About this sound Харби́н 
Romanization Kharbin

About this sound Harbin  is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang province, People’s Republic of China.[5] Holding sub-provincial administrative status,[6] Harbin has direct jurisdiction over 9 metropolitan districts, 2 county-level cities and 7 counties. Harbin is the eighth most populous Chinese city and the most populous city in Northeast China.[7] According to the 2010 census, the built-up area made of 7 out of 9 urban districts (all but Shuangcheng and Acheng not urbanized yet) had 5,282,093 inhabitants, while the total population of the sub-provincial city was up to 10,635,971.[4] Harbin serves as a key political, economic, scientific, cultural and communications hub in Northeast China, as well as an important industrial base of the nation.[8]

Harbin, which was originally a Manchu word meaning “a place for drying fishing nets”,[8] grew from a small rural settlement on the Songhua River to become one of the largest cities in Northeast China. Founded in 1898 with the coming of the Chinese Eastern Railway, the city first prospered as a region inhabited by an overwhelming majority of the immigrants from the Russian Empire.[9]

Having the most bitterly cold winters among major Chinese cities, Harbin is heralded as the Ice City for its well-known winter tourism and recreations.[10] Harbin is notable for its beautiful ice sculpture festival in the winter, the largest in the world.[11] Besides being well known for its historical Russian legacy, it serves as an important gateway in Sino-Russian trade today.[12] In the 1920s, the city was considered China’s fashion capital since new designs from Paris and Moscow reached here first before arriving in Shanghai.[13] The city has been voted “China Top Tourist City” by China National Tourism Administration in 2004.[8] On 22 June 2010, Harbin was appointed a UNESCO “City of Music” as part of the Creative Cities Network.[14]



Early history

The statue of Emperor Taizu of Jin on the square of Harbin Jin Dynasty History Museum

Human settlement in Harbin area dates from at least 2200 BC during the late Stone Age. Wanyan Aguda, the founder and first emperor of Jin dynasty from 1115 to 1123, was born in the Jurchen Wanyan tribes who resided near the Ashi River in this region.[15] In 1115 CE, Aguda established Jin’s capital Shangjing (Upper Capital) Huining Fu in today’s Acheng District of Harbin.[16] After Aguda’s death, the new emperor Wanyan Sheng ordered to build a new city on uniform plan. The planning and construction emulated major Chinese cities, in particular Bianjing (Kaifeng), although the Jin capital was smaller than its Northern Song prototype.[17] Huining Fu served as the first superior capital of the empire until the capital was moved to Yanjing (now Beijing) in 1153 by Wanyan Liang (the fourth emperor of Jin Dynasty).[18] Liang even went so far as to destroy all palaces in his former capital in 1157.[18] Wanyan Liang’s successor Wanyan Yong (Emperor Shizong) restored the city and established it as a secondary capital in 1173.[19] Ruins of the Shangjing Huining Fu were discovered and excavated at about 2 km from present-day Acheng’s central urban area.[16][20] The site of the old Jin capital ruins is a national historic reserve, and includes the Jin Dynasty History Museum. The museum is open to public and renovated in the late 2005.[20] Mounted statues of Aguda and his chief commander Wanyan Zonghan (also Nianhan) have been erected on the grounds of the museum.[21] Many of the artifacts found there are on display in nearby Harbin.

After the Mongol conquest of the Jin Empire, Huining Fu was abandoned. Building materials of Huining Fu’s ruin was later exploited by the Manchus in the 1600s to build their new stronghold in Alchuka. The region of Harbin remained largely rural until the 1800s, with only over ten villages and about 30,000 people in today’s urban districts of the city by the end of the 19th century.[22]

International city

A small village in 1898 grew into the modern city of Harbin.[23] Polish engineer Adam Szydłowski drew plans for the city following the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway, which the Russian Empire had financed.[9] The Russians selected Harbin as the base of their administration over this railway and the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone. The Chinese Eastern Railway extended the Trans-Siberian Railway: substantially reducing the distance from Chita to Vladivostok and also linking the new port city of Dalny (Dalian) and the Russian Naval Base Port Arthur (Lüshun).

St. Nicolas Orthodox, a Russian Orthodox church in Harbin, circa 1940, demolished during the Cultural Revolution

During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5), Russia used Harbin as its base for military operations in Northeastern China. Following Russia’s defeat, its influence declined. Several thousand nationals from 33 countries, including the United States, Germany, and France moved to Harbin. Sixteen countries established consulates to serve their nationals, who established several hundred industrial, commercial and banking companies. Churches were rebuilt for Russian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, Lutheran/German Protestant, and Polish Catholic Christians. Chinese capitalists also established businesses, especially in brewing, food and textiles. Harbin became the economic hub of northeastern China and an international metropolis.[22]

Rapid growth of the city challenged the public healthcare system. The worst-ever recorded outbreak of pneumonic plague was spread to Harbin through Trans-Manchurian railway from the border trade port of Manzhouli.[24] The plague lasted from late autumn of 1910 to the spring of 1911 and killed 1,500 Harbin residents (mostly ethnic Chinese), or about five percent of its population at the time.[25] This turned out to be the beginning of the large pneumonic plague pandemic of Manchuria and Mongolia which ultimately claimed 60,000 victims. In the winter of 1910, Dr. Wu Lien-teh (later the founder of Harbin Medical University) was given instructions from the Foreign Office, Peking, to travel to Harbin to investigate the plague. Dr. Wu asked for imperial sanction to cremate plague victims, as cremation of these infected victims turned out to be the turning point of the epidemic. The suppression of this plague pandemic changed medical progress in China. Bronze statues of Dr. Wu Lien-teh are built in Harbin Medical University to remember his contributions in promoting public health, preventive medicine and medical education.[26]

After the plague epidemic Harbin’s population continued to increased sharply, especially inside the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone. In 1913 the Chinese Eastern Railway census showed its ethnic composition as: Russians – 34313, Chinese (that is, including Hans, Manchus etc.) – 23537, Jews – 5032, Poles – 2556, Japanese – 696, Germans – 564, Tatars – 234, Latvians – 218, Georgians – 183, Estonians – 172, Lithuanians – 142, Armenians – 124; there were also Karaims, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, and some Western Europeans. In total, 68549 citizens of 53 nationalities, speaking 45 languages.[27] Research shows that only 11.5 percent of all residents were born in Harbin.[28] By 1917, Harbin’s population exceeded 100,000, with over 40,000 of them were ethnic Russians.[29]

Harbin’s Kitayskaya Street (Russian for “Chinese Street”), now Zhongyang Street (Chinese for “Central Street”) before 1945

After Russia’s Great October Socialist Revolution in November 1917, more than 100,000 defeated Russian White Guards and refugees retreated to Harbin, which became a major center of White Russian émigrés and the largest Russian enclave outside the Soviet Union.[29] The city had a Russian school system, as well as publishers of Russian language newspapers and journals. Russian ‘Harbintsy’[30] community numbered around 120,000 at its peak in the early 1920s.[31] In the early 1920s, according to Chinese scholars’ recent studies, over 20,000 Jews lived in Harbin.[32] After 1919, Dr. Abraham Kaufman played a leading role in Harbin’s large Russian Jewish community.[33] The Republic of China discontinued diplomatic relations with Imperial Russia in 1920, so many Russians found themselves stateless. When the Chinese Eastern Railway and government in Beijing announced in 1924 that they agreed the railroad would only employ Russian or Chinese nationals, the emigrees were forced to announce their ethnic and political allegiance. Most accepted Soviet citizenship. The Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang seized the Chinese Eastern Railway in 1929. Soviet military force quickly put an end to the crisis and forced the Nationalist Chinese to accept restoration of joint Soviet-Chinese administration of the railway.[34]

Japanese invasion period

Headquarter of the Imperial Japanese Army’s covert biological and chemical warfare research and development Unit 731.

Japan invaded Manchuria outright after the Mukden Incident in September 1931. After the Japanese captured Qiqihar in the Jiangqiao Campaign, the Japanese 4th Mixed Brigade moved toward Harbin, closing in from the west and south. Bombing and strafing by Japanese aircraft forced the Chinese army to retreat from Harbin. Within a few hours the Japanese occupation of Harbin was complete.[35]

With the establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo, the pacification of Manchukuo began, as volunteer armies continued to fight the Japanese. Harbin became a major operations base for the infamous medical experimenters of Unit 731, who killed people of all ages and ethnicities. All these units were known collectively as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army.[36] The main facility of the Unit 731 was built in 1935 at Pingfang District, approximately 24 km (15 mi) south of Harbin urban area at that time.[37] Between 3,000 and 12,000 citizens including men, women, and children[38][39]—from which around 600 every year were provided by the Kempeitai[40]—died during the human experimentation conducted by Unit 731 at the camp based in Pingfang alone, which does not include victims from other medical experimentation sites.[41] Almost 70 percent of the victims who died in the Pingfang camp were Chinese, including both civilian and military.[42] Close to 30 percent of the victims were Russian.[43] Some others were South East Asians and Pacific Islanders, at the time colonies of the Empire of Japan, and a small number of the prisoners of war from the Allies of World War II[44] (although many more Allied POWs were victims of Unit 731 at other sites). Prisoners of war were subjected to vivisection without anesthesia, after infected with various diseases.[45] Prisoners were injected with inoculations of disease, disguised as vaccinations, to study their effects. Unit 731 and its affiliated units (Unit 1644 and Unit 100 among others) were involved in research, development, and experimental deployment of epidemic-creating biowarfare weapons in assaults against the Chinese populace (both civilian and military) throughout World War II. Human targets were also used to test grenades positioned at various distances and in different positions. Flame throwers were tested on humans. Humans were tied to stakes and used as targets to test germ-releasing bombs, chemical weapons, and explosive bombs.[46][47] Twelve Unit 731 members were found guilty in the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials but later repatriated; others received secret immunity by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers Douglas MacArthur before the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal in exchange for biological warfare work in the Cold War for the American Force.[48]

Chinese revolutionaries including Zhao Shangzhi, Yang Jingyu, Li Zhaolin, Zhao Yiman continued to struggle against the Japanese in Harbin and its administrative area, commanding the main anti-Japanese guerrilla army-Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army which was originally organized by the Manchurian branch of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The army was supported by the Comintern after the The CPC Manchurian Provincial Committee was dissolved in 1936.

Under the Manchukuo régime and Japanese occupation, Harbin Russians had a difficult time. In 1935, the Soviet Union sold the Chinese Eastern Railway (KVZhD) to the Japanese, and many Russian emigres left Harbin (48133 of them were arrested during the Soviet Great Purge between 1936 and 1938 as “Japanese spies”[49]).[29] Most departing Russians returned to the Soviet Union, but a substantial number moved south to Shanghai or emigrated to the United States and Australia. By the end of the 1930s, the Russian population of Harbin had dropped to around 30,000.[50]

Many of Harbin’s Jews (13,000 in 1929) fled after the Japanese occupation as the Japanese associated closely with militant anti-Soviet Russian Fascists, whose ideology of anti-Bolshevism and nationalism was laced with virulent anti-Semitism.[51] Most left for Shanghai, Tianjin, and the British Mandate of Palestine.[52] In the late 1930s, some German Jews fleeing the Nazis moved to Harbin. Japanese officials later facilitated Jewish emigration to several cities in western Japan, notably Kobe, which came to have Japan’s largest synagogue.

Post World War II

Monument to Soviet soldiers in Harbin’s Nangang District, built by Soviet Red Army in 1945

The Soviet Army took the city on 20 August 1945[53] and Harbin never came under the control of the Kuomintang, whose troops stopped 60 km (37 mi) short of the city.[54] The city’s administration was transferred by the departing Soviet Army to the Chinese People’s Liberation Army in April 1946. On April 28, 1946, the Communist Government of Harbin was established, making the 700,000-citizen-city the first large city under Chinese Communist force rule.[22] During the short occupation of Harbin by the Soviet Army (August 1945 to April 1946), thousands of Russian emigres who have been identified as members of the Russian Fascist Party and fled communism after the Russian October Revolution,[31] were forcibly moved to the Soviet Union. After 1952 the Soviet Union launched a second wave of immigration back to Russia.[31] By 1964, the Russian population in Harbin had been reduced to 450.[50] The rest of the European community (Russians, Germans, Poles, Greeks, etc.) emigrated during the years 1950–54 to Australia, Brazil, Canada, Israel and the USA, or were repatriated to their home countries.[31] By 1988 the original Russian community numbered just thirty, all of them elderly. Modern Russian living in Harbin mostly moved there in the 1990s and 2000s, and have no relation to the first wave of emigration.

Harbin was among one of the key construction cities of China during the First Five-Year Plan period from 1951 to 1956. 13 of the 156 key construction projects were aid-constructed by the Soviet Union in Harbin. This project made Harbin an important industrial base of China. During the Great Leap Forward from 1958 to 1961, Harbin experienced a very tortuous development course as several Sino-Soviet contracts were cancelled by the Soviet Union.[55] During the Cultural Revolution many foreign and Christian things were uprooted, such as the St. Nicholas church which was destroyed by Red Guards in 1966. As the normal economic and social order was seriously disrupted, Harbin’s economy also suffered from serious setbacks. One of the main reasons of this setback is with its Soviet ties deteriorating and the Vietnam War escalating, China became concerned of a possible nuclear attack. Mao Zedong ordered an evacuation of military and other key state enterprises away from the northeastern frontier, with Harbin being the core zone of this region, bordering the Soviet Union. During this Third Front Development Era of China, several major factories of Harbin were relocated to Southwestern Provinces including Gansu, Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou, where they would be strategically secure in the event of a possible war. Some major universities of China were also moved out of Harbin, including Harbin Military Academy of Engineering (predecessor of Changsha’s National University of Defense Technology) and Harbin Institute of Technology (Moved to Chongqing in 1969 and relocated to Harbin in 1973).[56]

Huang Shan Jewish Cemetery of Harbin, China

National economy and social service have obtained significant achievements since the Chinese economic reform first introduced in 1979. Harbin holds the China Harbin International economic and Trade Fair each year since 1990.[22] Harbin once housed one of the largest Jewish communities in the Far East before World War II. It reached its peak in the mid-1920s when 25,000 European Jews lived in the city. Among them were the parents of Ehud Olmert, the former Prime Minister of Israel. In 2004, Olmert came to Harbin with an Israeli trade delegation to visit the grave of his grandfather in Huang Shan Jewish Cemetery,[57] which had over 500 Jewish graves identified.[31]

On 5 October 1984, Harbin was designated a sub-provincial city by the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee. The eight counties of Harbin originally formed part of Songhuajiang Prefecture whose seat was practically located inside the urban area of Harbin since 1972. The prefecture was officially merged into Harbin city on 11 August 1996, increasing Harbin’s total population to 9.47 million.[58]

Harbin hosted the third Asian Winter Games in 1996.[59] In 2009, Harbin held the XXIV Winter Universiade.

A memorial hall honoring Korean nationalist and independence activist[60] Ahn Jung-geun was unveiled at Harbin Railway Station on 19 January 2014.[61] Ahn assassinated four-time Prime Minister of Japan and former Resident-General of Korea Itō Hirobumi at No.1 platform of Harbin Railway Station on October 26, 1909, as Korea on the verge of annexation by Japan after the signing of the Eulsa Treaty.[62] South Korean President Park Geun-Hye raised an idea of erecting a monument for Ahn while meetting with Chinese President Xi Jinping during a visit to China in June 2013.[63] After that China began to build a memorial hall honoring Ahn at Harbin Railway Station. As the hall was unveiled on 19 January 2014, the Japanese side soon lodged protest with China over the construction of Ahn’s memorial hall.[64]

counting music on frogs

I’m restless,
and couldn’t stay put,
when I read a book by Philippa Rae
and Stephanie Rohr about
counting the sheep to sleep,
I decide to count raining frogs to a nap.
TEN frogs hop to the Yun canal bank,
One is caught up in a fish tank,
the others bounce around having fun.
NINE frogs come to Robert Kerr performing stage,
One breaks a cello string in rage,
OOps! only eight frogs get featured on Quartz Mountain participant page.
EIGHT frogs run Marathon at Bricktown,
one of them jumps on a Norway Van,
Dawn! only seven wins with a brown gown.
SEVEN frogs swim at Atlantic Ocean,
One gets on a Yacht ship for vacation,
Wow! only six frogs remain free and clean.
SIX frogs swing at hyde park playground,
One frog decides to play seek and hide,
Ouch! only five frogs still ride on a merry-go-round.
FIVE frogs lay flat on New York Disney store,
One is taken to watch over the Pick-Stager hall,
Well! only four frogs crunch their jaw for a break after all.
FOUR frogs roll their body up to St. Louis Arch,
One sneaks off the tower with a French cook,
Only three counts their blessings for a good luck.
THREE frogs sit on a mouse pad watching the Price is right show,
One is included on the Hollywood pride tour,
Bang! only two frogs croak aloud for attention at Marc Polo website.
TWO frogs come to Buckingham palace,
One is kept by George Alexandra Louis to babysit,
Dough! only one frog returns to USA today for his high wit.
ONE frog flies a helicopter to Les Vegas,
The buzzing sound makes him feel dizzy and depressed,
He sets aside his purse,
stretches his legs,
and dozes off….zzzzz!
and worry less.
No more frogs,
no more store shops,
no more subjective comments,
all are well with a dream at Lincoln blogs.